The challenges raised by 21st-century doping: A "brave new world" of doping or "old wine in new bottle"?

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Francisco Javier Lopés Frias


In this paper, I will present several nanotechnologies and prosthetic devices with applications and potential harmful effects to sport. Then, by drawing on the World Anti-Doping Agency’s (WADA) three criteria to regard a substance, technology, or medical intervention as doping, I will to analyse three ethical concerns raised by such technologies, namely: (1) the intrinsic nature of sport; (2) the physical harm and risks involved; and (3) the role sport plays in society.

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