Mass triathlon participation as a human need to set the goals and cross the borders. How to understand the triathlete?

Main Article Content

Joanna Poczta
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8825-5953
Ewa Malchrowicz-Mosko
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7676-1477

Abstract

Buchholz and Artinian (2009) defined physical activity and categorized it into three levels: low, moderate, and high. Triathlon as an activity that typically combines swimming, cycling and running in one event, belongs to high level and is considered as a hard discipline, requiring frequent, well-planned training. The three sports are performed consecutively with no breaks. As recreational athletes show a growing interest in long-distance events, and the participation in triathlon is increasing, the aim of this article is to try to understand the popularization of such a difficult sport as triathlon. The research question is what motivates people to participate in triathlon and why people feel this strong need to participate in such exhausting sports competition? It was decided to look for answers to the research questions in the available literature on the problem and in the review of research on participation in triathlon. It turns out that the basis of most of the considerations was the Self Determination Theory. Many authors have referred in their research to the Motivations of Marathoners Scale (MOMS).

Article Details

Section
Original Article

References

1 Lamont M, Kennelly M. A qualitative exploration of participant motives among committed amateur triathletes. Leisure Sciences. 2012; 34(3): 236-255. doi:10.1080/01490400.2012.669685
2 Plant M. Triathlon: going the distance. Chicago. IL: Contemporary Book; 1987.
3 Brown C. Motives for participation in triathlons among midlife to older black women: a mixed method study [cited 1 dec 2020]. 2016. Available at https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/51294214.pdf.
4 Lovett D. An examination of the motives to participate in sprint distance triathlon. [thesis]. Albuquerque (USA): University of New Mexico; 2011 [cited 01 dec 2020]. Available at https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/151575125.pdf.
5 Thompson P, Buchner D, Piña I, Balady G, Williams M, Marcus B, Wenger N. Exercise and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic. Cardiovascular Disease. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2003; 107(23): 42-49. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000075572.40158.77
6 Buchholz SW, Artinian NT. Dimensions of physical activity in African American women. Health Care for Women International. 2009; 30(4): 308-323. doi:10.1090/07399330802694955
7 Center for disease control physical activity: Surveillance systems. [cited 1 dec 2020]. 2016. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/data/surveillance.html.
8 Krouse R, Ransdell L, Lucas S, Prichard M. Motivations, goal orientation, coaching and training habits of women ultrarunners. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2011; 29(10): 2835-2842. doi:10.1519/jsc.0b013e318207e964
9 Sellés-Pérez S, Fernández-Sáez J, Férriz-Valero A, Esteve-Lanao J, Cejuela R. Changes in triathletes’ performance and body composition during a specific training period for a half-ironman race. J Hum Kinet. 2019; 67: 185–198. doi: 10.2478/hukin-2018-0077
10 Schneider T. Triathlon revolution: training, technique, and inspiration. Seattle (USA): The Mountaineers Books; 2008.
11 LaChausse RG. Motives of competitive and non-competitive cyclists. Journal of Sport Behavior. 2006; 29(4): 304-314.
12 Masters KS, Ogles BM, Jolton JA. The development of an instrument to measure motivation for marathon running: The Motivation of Marathoners Scales (MoMS). Res. Q. Exerc. Sport. 1993; 64: 134–143.
13 Masters KS, Ogles BM, Jolton JA. The development of an instrument to measure motivation for marathon running: The Motivations of Marathoners Scales (MOMS). Research Quarterly in Exercise and Sport. 1993; 64(2): 134-143. doi:10.1080/02701367.1993.10608790
14 Masters KS, Ogles BM. An investigation of the different motivations of marathon runners with varying degrees of experience. J. Sport Behav. 1995; 18: 69–79.
15 Ogles BM, Masters KS, Richardson SA. Obligatory running and gender: An analysis of participative motives and training habits. Int. J. Sport Psychol. 1995; 26: 233–248.
16 Masters KS, Ogles BM. Cognitive strategies relate to injury, motivation, and performance among marathon runners: results from two studies. J. Appl. Sport Psychol. 1998: 10: 281–296.
17 Ogles BM, Masters KS. Older versus younger adult male marathon runners: participative motives and training habits. J. Sport Behav. 2000; 23: 1–14.
18 Doppelmayr M, Molkenthin A. Motivation of participants in adventure ultramarathons compared to other foot races. Biology of Sport. 2004; 21(4): 319-323.
19 Croft SJ, Gray CC, Duncan JF. Motives for participating in triathlon: an investigation between elite and non-elite competitors in an Australian setting [cited 1 dec 2020]. 2007. Available at http://reocities.com/CollegePark/5686/su99p12.htm
20 Lovett D. An examination of the motives to participate in sprint distance triathlon [thesis]. Albuquerque (USA): University of New Mexico; 2011 [cited 1 dec 2020]. Available at https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/151575125.pdf
21 Deci EL, Ryan RM. Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life’s domains. Canadian Psychology. 2008; 49(1): 14-23. doi:10.1037/0708-5591.49.1.14
22 Lamont M, Kennelly M. A qualitative exploration of participant motives among committed amateur triathletes. Leisure Sciences. 2012: 34(3): 236-255. doi:10.1080/01490400.2012.669685
23 Youngman J, Simpson D. Risk for exercise addiction: a comparison of triathletes training for sprint-, olympic-, half-ironman-, and ironman-distance triathlons. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology. 2014; 8(1): 19-37. doi:10.1123/jcsp.2014-0010
24 Cronan M, Scott D. Triathlon and women's narratives of bodies and sport. Leisure Sciences. 2008; 30(1): 17-34. doi:10.1080/01490400701544675
25 McCarville R. From a fall in the mall to a run in the sun: one journey to Ironman triathlon. Leisure Sciences. 2007; 29(2): 159-173. doi:10.1080/01490400601160812
26 Virnig AG, McLeod CR. Attitudes toward eating and exercise: a comparison of runners and triathletes. Journal of Sport Behavior. 1996; 19(1): 82-90.
27 Hendy HM, Boyer BJ. Gender differences in attributions for triathlon performance. Sex Roles. 1993; 29(7/8): 527-543. doi:10.1007/bf00289326
28 Dionigi RA. Older sportswomen: personal and cultural meanings of resistance and conformity. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences. 2010; 5(4): 395-408.
29 Bell GJ, Howe BL. Mood state profiles and motivations of triathletes. Journal of Sport Behavior. 1998; 11(2): 66-77.
30 Baczurik A. Just tri: examining the transformative experiences of women amputees who participate in paratriathlons [thesis]. Clemson, South Carolina (USA): Clemson University; 2012 [cited 1 dec 2020]. Available at https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2493&context=all_theses.
31 Cronan M, Scott D. Triathlon and women's narratives of bodies and sport. Leisure Sciences. 2008; 30(1): 17-34. doi:10.1080/01490400701544675
32 Brown C, Collins S. African American triathletes: an exercise regimen for the aging woman. Poster session presented at the Gerontological Society of America Annual Meeting Atlanta GA; 2009.
33 Peterson MD, Gordon PM. Resistance exercise for the aging adult: clinical implications and prescription guidelines. The American Journal of Medicine. 2011; 124(3): 194-198. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2010.08.020
34 James D, Pobee J, Oxidine D, Brown L. Using the health belief model to develop culturally appropriate weight-management materials for African-American women. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2012; 112(5): 2212-2672. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2012.02.003